Short quotations. If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p.
Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations. Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin.
Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following:. Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. Summary or Paraphrase. When paraphrasing, make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number not required.
According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
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APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 11. Citing Sources
Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al.
When to Cite – Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks.
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
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If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.
Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. Research Help: Search this Guide Search. Use the navigation on the left to learn more. Maybe: Due to deforestation, the Amazon has been rapidly decreasing in size since the s. If you are writing an in-depth paper on the Amazon for an expert reader, this would likely be accepted as common knowledge.
If you are writing a basic or introductory paper for a more general audience, you should provide a citation. This is a statistic derived from specific research, and should be cited even if it is widely accepted to be true.
You should always give the source of figures and statistics. Common knowledge does not need to be cited in your paper. However, to avoid plagiarism , you should be absolutely certain a piece of information is considered common knowledge before you omit the reference. Remember that in an academic paper, you are unlikely to include very much information that is considered common knowledge, as the nature of research involves exploring complex concepts.
It can be tempting to cite every sentence to be safe, but in some cases over-citation can weaken your academic writing. If in doubt, you should consult your supervisor, professor or department. In general, though, you should avoid idioms and informal phrases in academic writing. Have a language expert improve your writing.
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Home Knowledge Base Plagiarism Common knowledge: to cite or not to cite? Common knowledge: to cite or not to cite? There are two main categories that can be considered common knowledge: Information that most people know.
Information shared by a specific group of people, such as a national or cultural group, or members of a certain professional field. What is your plagiarism score? Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications. Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis.
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