The book is rich with case studies and anecdotes that make it all the more entertaining. Berkun also shows how to overcome resistance to new ideas and emphasizes that problems are in fact more important than answers. Professor at the IIT Institute of Design in Chicago, Vijay Kumar offers a comprehensive library of design tools and methods in a book format that is easy to digest.
The user-friendly organization of materials combined with full-color photos and plenty of design examples definitely does the trick. Kaplan is a celebrated author, professor, and speaker in the fields of business strategy and innovation. His book is rich and practical tips, case studies, real-world world examples and plenty of valuable information for team leaders and executives.
Moreover, the book comes with a toolkit that includes a video, questionnaire, interview guide, PowerPoint template, and PDF poster to help get you started on your road to innovation. You could definitely use a book like this one. One of the most common myths about innovation is that an amazing idea just appears in the mind of a genius. The truth is that most innovations arise from a process of thorough assessment where great ideas are first detected and developed before being realized.
Brown presents design thinking as a human-centered approach to solving problems that allows organizations to become more innovative and creative. Socialism and capitalism ideologies made inroads to African leaders promising to help in state building and economic development. These, among a combination of other factors, propelled the development of innovation and creativity on the continent. A brief overview of the African economic picture reveals a paradox where the continent that has rich mineral resources, nearly a billion people and a land mass larger than the size of China, USA, India and Western Europe, Argentina combined but still dependent on foreign aid from donors.
This occurs despite the huge endowments of resources on the continent, both known and yet to be known. Backed up by these resources, the African continent should have been a production and innovation centre and not a charity centre of the world where national ownership has been substituted with foreign aid. Over the years, Africa's levels of innovative productivity have been low and overall competitiveness has remained stagnant for a long period of time.
This has been a concern voiced by most African leaders. Few countries in Africa have demonstrated that this is possible. The success of the electronic money transfer mobile phone application called Mpesa in Kenya provides a good example on how innovative technology can be used in economic development. Roger's [ 31 ] diffusion of innovation theory and Vernon's concept of product life cycle are used to interrogate if changes brought by industry are enabling creativity and innovation to assess the responsiveness of firms when their products reach maturity. This study is underpinned by the qualitative case study method of data gathering and analysis with inductive approach.
This is consistent with Yin's [ 32 ] postulations. Yin posits that the use of qualitative approaches in research studies can help in explaining the ultimate outcomes because the analysis technique consists of matching empirically observed events to theoretically predicted events, which is the interest of this study. In the same spirit, case study research is viewed as an integral approach for studying innovation and creativity.
However, its usefulness, relevance and quality will depend on the evaluation situation and the skills of the researcher.
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An examination of the literature reveals that creativity and innovation played a key role in the past industrial revolutions. The research for this paper therefore concentrated on 12 manufacturing enterprises in Kenya selected randomly from the Kenya Association of Manufacturers and one service sector firm randomly selected from the Kenya Private Sector Alliance.
Interviews were conducted using a discussion guide. Although the data were largely collected through interviews, some observations and prior experiences of the authors are drawn upon to explain some of the missing links in the research. A detailed content analysis of verbatim interview transcripts gave rise to three major themes that cantered on individuals or enablers that nurture creativity and innovation: challenges that undermine creativity and innovation, and opportunities that foster creativity and innovation.
These individuals or enablers of creativity and innovation included supportive policies, networks with research institutions and incentives.
Creativity and Innovation
Lastly in opportunities for creativity and innovation, the focus was on competitiveness, growth and scaling enterprise. All respondents had some form of process innovation in most cases necessitated by new manufacturing equipment from suppliers. Similarly, all respondents have at some point developed new products and except for three firms, the rest conduct market research on a regular basis sometimes to monitor their market share or customer needs. Only one manufacturing company and the service sector firm seemed aggressive in competitiveness. The entrepreneurial orientation of the service sector firm was extremely high owing to the fact that the competition in the sector is exceedingly high.
The competition in the manufacturing sector is not as intense as the service sector. The views of the respondents can be collapsed into four thematic areas: enablers of creativity and innovation, challenges that undermine creativity and innovation, opportunities that foster creativity and innovation, and the missing local contribution to creativity and innovation.
The common thread in all the interviews was the role of the state in enabling closer collaboration between research institutions, industry and the state. A significant number of the interviewees were aware of the progress that has been made to bridge the gap between research and industry owing to the fact that policy and institutional frameworks are in place. An emphasis was also placed on pursuing more and better collaborations and partnerships. The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology was created to spearhead capacity building and innovation.
Services on Demand
These initiatives resulted in the development of institutions that support innovation, including but not limited to the Kenya National Innovation Agency, the National Research Fund and the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation. It also serves as the National Research and Education Network.
Policy seeks to mainstream the application of technology, science and innovation in all sectors of the economy to ensure that all Kenyans benefit from all available capacities in order to achieve the objectives of Vision The policy prioritized several sectors for intervention, including health and life sciences, agriculture and rural development, trade and industry, physical infrastructure, human resource development, natural resource management, energy, environment, and information and communication technologies ICTs.
As if to address Andah's concerns of colonial disruption of African institutional and cultural forms, Kenya's constitution recognized the role of African indigenous innovations in development.
To support and operationalize the constitutional requirements for the recognition of indigenous innovations, a sessional paper on technology and science was published in , which was followed by an Act of parliament on Science, Technology and Innovation. The salary scales in many African countries can rarely sustain good researchers.
Ten Types of Innovation: 30 new case studies for 12222
The competition for quality human resource especially from developed and newly industrialized countries is thus enormous and one that a firm based in Africa cannot win. To overcome this problem, business entities must be creative and come up with disruptive products that can scale beyond the local market and attract venture capital to sustainably grow.
Even where there are disruptive products, many believe that danger lurks in safeguarding their intellectual property.
Institutions to protect IP are not well developed on the continent. They are slow to review new innovations and respond.
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Lack of ethics also undermines the trust that organizations need to collaboratively work in research activities. Even more disruptive are the delays in judicial processes in emerging economies caused by business entities under fire for replicating products and branding them as their own. Respondents concluded that for emerging economies to be successful, there is need for reforms across the board, including intellectual property rights.
In spite of all the challenges in the Kenyan and African case more generally, the opportunity to become competitive exists. Some of the interviewees have overcome the challenge and are effectively competing not just with the local competitors but with international firms too.
A Case Study on Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education of the University in Taiwan
Their argument especially when competing with multinationals is that they know the terrain and the customer better. This, however, is no excuse for not becoming more creative and innovative. Some do indeed come up with innovative solutions to remain relevant in the market.
derivid.route1.com/direccin-por-objetivos.php It is for this reason that some of the firms interviewed have begun to scale up their enterprises into regional markets. None, however, have moved beyond the African market into international markets. The author's experience in the past indeed witnessed products that moved from the local market and scale into the global stage. This was mainly software and applications that quickly attracted international research funding leading to a global product. As stated earlier, many African firms started as MSMEs and few have climbed the ladder to become large enterprises.
Interviewees thought their failure to grow was attributable to lack of finance, market, technology, leadership and poor customer relations but increasingly they have noted that those companies that introduce new products or new ways that respond to customer needs succeed. They say Africa has unique problems whose solutions would somehow find their way to the international markets.
Such innovation would never have happened in the Western world, owing to the fact that banks are accessible everywhere and the use of credit card is widespread. As such if Kenya had followed the Western script, the challenge of sending money to rural areas would still require a solution. This thinking curtails creativity when the mindset of corporate leadership is such that some innovation is only good if it came from the West. This view emanates from the colonial past whose impact on the African entrepreneurial mindset has not been widely studied.
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