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McIntyre Amazon. Phenomenology and the history of philosophy belong essentially together. Our concepts are the outcome of a particular historical context. Part of the project of destruction was the retrieval of elements of the tradition. Indeed, Taminiaux has argued that it could be demonstrated that the project of fundamental ontology is a combination of what Heidegger took to be the core insights of Husserl and Aristotle.
The important thing to note here is that categorial intuition grasps the being of a thing. Givenness admits of two levels and Dasein has immediate access to both of them. This as-dimension heralds the surplus. In the tradition truth has been understood to be the adequation of the mind to reality, the thought is adequate to the thing adaequatio intellectus ad rem , as such its primary locus was the predicative judgement.
Husserl displaced this notion of adaequatio by conceiving of the prior notion of evidence, understood as the self-manifestation of the intentional object as phenomenon to intentionality, as the criterion of truth. The primary locus of truth was no longer confined to the predicative judgement, rather, it is located in intentionality itself and thus in all modifications of consciousness and this insight Heidegger took to be the fundamental trait of Greek thought, if not of philosophy itself.
Unconcealing is not restricted to consciousness. This means that Dasein has at its disposal the unconcealed beings with which it has an association. Dasein is constituted by disclosedness and there is truth only so long as there is Dasein. All truth is relative to Dasein. Combining this aletheiological insight with the phenomenological insight, Heidegger arrived at the point where he saw that beings are self-showing or self-disclosive alethes only to the extent that they are correlated by the multiple ways in which Dasein co-performs disclosure.
Of primary significance for Heidegger are the ways in which practically engaged Dasein co-performs this disclosure and Dasein is essentially a practically engaged agent. This is precisely the issue that Heidegger understands as the event of intelligibility in the factical life of Dasein. It is precisely this event that has to be thought. This event is the Ereignis. It is the ultimate a priori which is, ultimately, unfathomable. Ereignis is the ultimate presupposition of Western philosophy and is the matter that has remained unthought in the entirety of the tradition. The essence of the Ereignis is essentially bound up with the essence of Dasein.
As such, Ereignis is bound to finite temporality. Part of this project involves examining whether the theme of temporality, which is required for the proper understanding of being, has ever or could have ever come properly into view. The only philosopher ever to have come close to the problem of temporality was Kant. In order to be applicable to what is given in experience such a priori concepts or categories must be invested with a temporal sense.
For example, the category of substance is interpreted as permanence.source link
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Both of these barriers are connected. And although he brought time back into the subject his conception of it still moved within the traditional understanding. This prevented him from working out a transcendental determination of time in its structure and function. Descartes, Scholasticism and Time Despite his claim to have placed philosophy on a new and sure foundation Descartes left the being of the res cogitans undetermined. Kant and Descartes are crucial in the destruction of the history of ontology.
The subject for Descartes was still understood as a created being, an ens creatum in contradistinction to the ens infinitum, God.
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Descartes was a pluralist who upheld the reality of more than one substance: God, the divine substance, created the other two kinds of substance, individual minds and material bodies. Except by divine power, neither material body nor mind could be created or destroyed. Heidegger, Scotus and Univocity 45 Descartes was thus nowhere near as radical and his new foundation was nowhere near as new as he took it to be.
Descartes depended upon scholasticism. Thus, what has to be brought to light in order to make this statement philosophically relevant is how the scholastic ontology has influenced the way the tradition has determined or failed to determine the res cogitans in its ontological character. The medieval ontology was itself determined by the ancient ontology. It should come as no surprise that Heidegger maintains that this fact cannot be fully comprehended until ancient ontology has been fully explored with reference to the question of being.
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As such, the task of destruction involves interpreting the foundation of the ancient ontology in terms of the problematic of temporality. The problematic of any ontology must take its clue from Dasein.
The outward evidence that this is the case is the treatment of the meaning of being as ousia substance. And this means that they are understood in terms of the mode of the present. By raising the question of the meaning of being Heidegger placed himself in a critical relation to the Aristotelian tradition of substance ontology.
The outcome of this tradition was the notion that there are manifold meanings of being. For Aristotle, there are as many meanings of being as there are categories of beings. For example, there is the category of primary substance: individual particular things possessed of ontological independence and which occur in nature. All other beings are attributes of these primary substances and either inhere in them or stand in some relation to them. Aristotle regarded his categories as inscribed in the nature of things: they were not the mere reflection of the human mind.
They are read off nature and not imposed upon it or read into it by a subject. In modern Aristotle scholarship it was Brentano who re-established the centrality of the focal meaning of being in terms of substance. It is this tradition of substance ontology which determined the subsequent tradition of metaphysics from antiquity to modernity and against which Heidegger pitted himself.
This meaning or significance itself is determined by the context in terms of which our understanding operates and within which we act. Dasein is always already concerned with itself and its world and always already operates within an implicit pre-understanding of the being of both of these terms.
The theoretical stance adopted hitherto by philosophers constitutes the fundamental myopia of their approach. Now, this approach does have justification for the theoretical inquirer and would be virtually harmless when taken as what it in fact is: namely, a derivative mode of being determined by the manner in which their object is held up by them as the subject matter of inquiry.