Emery A. Furthermore, Harjo demonstrates the discouraging behavior against Indians through her own relation and credibility to the topic. Although Harjo is a Cheyenne Native American who has a considerable amount of bias on the issue, she provides reliable facts to support her opinion. Such actions performed by the government establish a common ground of disrespect toward Native Americans, who should essentially be considered as human beings, meaning such measures would insult any individual of any heritage.
Ultimatley, Harjo emotionally appeals to her audience through a humanistic connection of ethical ideals. She includes how Native American people are exhibited adjacent to dinosaurs and mastodons in educational institutions. As a result, Indians are essentially dehumanized into savages and as a dying species through the eyes of not only adults, but students as well. Therefore, pupils would naturally associate Indians as an inferior race without even defining what constitutes inferiority.
In addition, Harjo introduces the logical fallacy of how collecting earthly remains of Native Americans represents them as archaeological property. Such actions are demonstrated as moral injustices that have already been agreed upon since the enslavement of African Americans. But the teaching of goodness does not age; and so Goodness makes that known to the good ones. The monks come with the family to the funeral. The family and all their friends give food and candles to the monks.
Goodwill is created by these gifts and it is believed that the goodwill helps the lingering spirit of the dead person. Other Worlds. In Tibet, a Mahayana country, the day of death is thought of as highly important. It is believed that as soon as the death of the body has taken place, the personality goes into a state of trance for four days. During this time the person does not know they are dead. This period is called the First Bardo and during it lamas monks saying special verses can reach the person to them.
It is believed that towards the end of this time the dead person will see a brilliant light.
Chisom's Blog: Last Rites for Indian Dead By Suzan Shown Harjo
If the radiance of the Clear Light does not terrify them, and they can welcome it, then the person will not be reborn. But most flee from the Light, which then fades. The person then becomes conscious that death has occurred. At this point the Second Bardo begins. The person sees all that they have ever done or thought passing in front of them.
Last Rites for Indian Dead.docx - 1 What is the issue Harjo...
While they watch they feel they have a body but when they realize this is not so, they long to possess one again. Then comes the Third Bardo, which is the state of seeking another birth.
All previous thoughts and actions direct the person to choose new parents, who will give them their next body. Traditional Chinese Funeral Arrangements. On the passing away of the father, the eldest son becomes the head of the family. If the eldest son passes away, his second brother does not assume leadership of the family. Leadership passes to the eldest son of the eldest son or the grandson of the father. He must assume the responsibilities and duties to the ancestors on behalf of the family.
Form of the Funeral Ceremony. There are two main traditions that are observed:. The funeral ceremony, traditionally lasts over 49 days, the first seven days being the most important. Prayers are said every seven days for 49 days if the family can afford it.
If the family is in poor circumstances, the period may be shortened to from 3 to 7 days. Usually, it is the responsibility of the daughters to bear the funeral expenses. The head of the family should be present for, at least the first and, possibly the second, prayer ceremony. The number of ceremonies conducted is dependent on the financial situation of the family. The head of the family should also be present for the burial or the cremation.
The fear of ghosts or spirits, for example, can be related to both the dimensions of status and identity. In terms of status, ghosts and spirits can be seen as the dead who have not been successfully moved from their place in this world to that of the next. They are those who are caught in the between realm of an unintended liminal state, potentially dangerous liminal entities, or phenomena as they symbolize radical change that challenges the social life set up against such change.
Sometimes further rites exist to try to get such spiritual forces finally to leave the world of the living and get on with their future destiny. At its most extreme, rites of exorcism serve to banish the dead or other supernatural entities and prevent them from influencing the living. In terms of identity, this time the identity of the living, ghosts and spirits and perhaps we should also include vivid dreams of the dead, all reflect the individual experience of a bereaved person who is still, psychologically speaking, caught up with the identity of the deceased person.
Physical death has also been widely employed as an idiom to describe the leaving of an old status and the entry into a new one. Turner explored liminality as a period in which human beings found great strength in the mutual support of others in the same situation. He coined the word communitas to describe this feeling of shared unity among those who, for example, were initiated together. The same might also apply to groups of people in the army or at college together, groups of people at carnivals or in pilgrimages, and those who are bereaved. Together they share the succor of their common humanity as they come together in adversity.
For a moment they forget their different statuses and the symbols that divide them to enter into the shared emotional experiences associated with grief. To be with others at such a time is to acknowledge what it means to be human and to be mortal.
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In these types of situations, people sometimes speak of finding a strength they did not know they possessed, or they speak of the support they felt from others over a period of bereavement. Maurice Bloch extensively modified van Gennep's scheme, criticizing its stress on the social status aspects of life and its ignoring of more psychological aspects. Bloch added the emphasis upon the psychological realm of experience as basic to human beings.
This existentialist-like stress provides a welcomed realization that the anthropology of ritual is, ultimately, about people with feelings. Bloch stressed that while a threefold ritual scheme of preliminal, liminal, and postliminal phases may suffice to describe changes in social status, it does not do justice to the changes individuals experience. It is not that an individual is simply removed from social life, taught new things, and given a new status on re-entry to ordinary social life. Far from it, that individual changes not least because of the experiences of bereavement and grief.
http://ncof.co.uk/las-faldas-de-mi-madre-fracturando-t.php Bloch makes a significant contribution to rites of passage in his theory of rebounding conquest, or rebounding violence. He describes the ordinary facts of life in terms of people being born, maturing, and then dying.
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Most human cultures, however, are unhappy with this simple progression. Through ritual forms they take living people and in a symbolic sense cause them to "die" and be "reborn" as new kinds of individuals, shedding old, used-up selves so new ones can take their place. Not only are they given a new status but they will also have experienced inner changes to their sense of identity. Many rituals of initiation in religions as well as in some secret societies use the natural idioms of birth and death but reverse them to speak of death and rebirth. It is as though the ordinariness of human nature is "killed" and a new and higher nature is bestowed.
In some religious traditions this scheme of rebounding conquest can be applied to death rites when physical death is said to be the basis for a new and spiritual life either in future transmigration of the soul or in some form of resurrection. Bloch, Maurice. Prey into Hunter.